Case Studies

Land Value Capture instruments for Green Resilient Infrastructure benefits: A framework applied in Cali, Colombia

Building resilient infrastructure is one of the major challenges cities face due to urbanization rates and climate change, while financing these investments is an additional challenge. However, land value capture can provide alternative and local finance sources. GAMA WASH sector prototype demonstration

The Ecological Sequestration Trust has been working in Ghana in partnership with The Cities Alliance as part of the Future Cities Africa Programme launched in early 2015, supported by the UK Government’s Department for International Development. The Programme supports African cities to anticipate and minimise future challenges in terms of climate, environment and natural resources, giving them the tools they need to undertake better planned, more participatory urban development.


Building Resilience through integrated water management in Bangalore, India

Bangalore, in southern India, has been rapidly growing over the past few decades from a population of 1.65 million in 1971 to approximately 8.5 million in 2011. Despite many economic gains in Bangalore, the city suffers from chronic shortages of basic services such as energy and water and severe traffic problems. In addition, the natural environment in and around Bangalore has been degraded, reducing the ecological sustainability and foundation for resilience in the city.

Priority Areas for Intervention

Durban, South Africa - Empowering Street Traders Through Urban Disaster Risk Management

Durban Skyline

The east coast city of Durban is South Africa’s third largest city with a population of about 3.5 million. Durban is a commercial and transport hub, and has the busiest port in Africa. Since the decline of key manufacturing industries in Durban, informal employment in the municipality, renamed eThekwini in 2000, has been increasing.

In 2014, Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO) and Asiye eTafuleni (AeT) launched a pilot project, the Phephanathi Project (“phephanathi” means “be safe with us” in isiZulu) aimed at empowering informal traders to be part of city planning through participatory disaster risk management. The intent was to collaborate with city of officials and thereby build a foundation to develop a more resilient city for all.

Mbale, Uganda - Enhancing urban resilience through community participation

Mbale, Uganda

Mbale Municipality is located in eastern Uganda in Mbale District. Mbale is the location of the district headquarters and is the central town and commercial centre. It is located 245 kilometres from Kampala and about 50 kilometres from Uganda’s border with Kenya.

With support from Cities alliance and UN-Habitat, the Government of Uganda piloted the Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) in Mbale municipality. Implementation involved many stakeholders including the central government, municipal government and civil society organisations representing the urban poor in Uganda including ACTogether, Slum Dwellers International and the National Slum Dwellers Federation of Uganda. The STDM was linked to earlier work by the government-led Transforming Settlements of the Urban Poor in Uganda (TSUPU) program which was launched in 2010 in partnership with the Government of Uganda and the Cities Alliance.

Concepción, Chile

Concepción, Chile

Concepción lies in Central Chile, 500 kilometres south of the capital, Santiago. The city sits within the larger urban area of Greater Concepcion, where a population of 1,026,425 reside across 10 municipalities. As the 11th largest municipality in Chile, Concepción is home to 231,233 people. Located 10 kilometres upstream of the mouth of the river Biobio, the city is also a capital, major port, and important administrative hub for the wider Bio-Bio region.

Concepción was among the areas most severely impacted by the 2010 Chile earthquake. The 8.8 magnitude quake was followed by a devastating tsunami, which affected over 500 kilometres of the Chilean coast.
Following these events the Municipalidad de Concepción, along with civil society and National Government, expressed a strong interest in measuring city resilience. With support from the Rockefeller Foundation, Arup is undertaking a series of pilot research studies in five global cities to test the feasibility, suitability and effectiveness of the City Resilience Index (CRI). Concepción was selected as an example of a Global South city that has undergone wide scale reconstruction and transformation following a major natural disaster. The CRI pilot offered the city the opportunity to evaluate strengths and weaknesses across the range of systems and processes which shape its resilience profile.

Shimla, India

Shimla, India

Shimla is the capital of Himachal Pradesh and is perched in the southwestern ranges of the Himalayas of Northern India. It is built over several hills and connecting ridges, occupying an area of approximately 20 km2. Formerly the British ‘Summer Capital’ of India, it is now one of the most one of the most popular tourist destinations in the State, both for Indian and international travelers alike.

In 2008 Shimla was selected as a pilot city in the Asian Cities Climate Change and Resilience Network (ACCCRN), funded by the Rockefeller Foundation. Together, the ACCCRN ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability developed a six-phase process to enable the identification of
vulnerable urban systems, capacity constraints, and opportunities under a future climate scenario.

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) is located in the delta area of the Saigon and Dong Nai rivers. It is Vietnam’s largest city and an important economic, trade, cultural and research centre, both within the country, and in South- East Asia. HCMC has a diversified topography, ranging from mainly agricultural and rural areas in the north to a widespread sys- tem of rivers, canals and dense mangrove forest to the south. The urban areas are located approximately 50km (31.1 miles) inland from the Pacific Ocean.

Similar to other evolving mega-cities in South-East Asia, Ho Chi Minh City has experienced rapid changes in recent decades. The city’s population has more than doubled from 3.9 million in 1989 to approximately 8 million inhabitants in 2010. The regional economy has continuously grown with double-digit growth rates and HCMC contributes nearly 30 per cent to the national GDP and received 37 per cent of total foreign direct investments in 2009.

Jakarta, Indonesia


Jakarta, with 9.6 million inhabitants in 2010 and an estimated 10.2 million in 2014, is the largest city of Indonesia and its capital. Jakarta is located in a lowland area with a relatively flat topography in the delta of several rivers, the main one being the Ciliwung River. Due to its naturally flood-prone location, the city has a long history of both coastal and riverine flooding.

Through the Spatial Plan 2030, Jakarta Water Management Strategy 2030 and Climate Adaptation Road Map for 2030, Jakarta aims to promote a safe and sustainable city. A key element is prevention or reduction of annual floods, which are caused by sea-level rise, storm surges and land subsidence, but also by insufficient flow and infiltration capacity of Jakarta’s watercourses (due to illegal waste disposal clogging and insufficient blue-green networks). This is why Jakarta launched the Socially Inclusive Climate Adaptation for Urban Revitalization Project (USD1.3 billion to be invested over 2012-2017) that aims to relocate close to 400,000 illegal squatters from riverbanks and nearby reservoirs, within "a humanized and participative process".